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IP network security cameras

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IP security cameras

Digital / IP Security cameras A digital network video surveillance system offers you a number of improvements over traditional Close Circuit Television (CCTV) video systems, like superior image quality and a large variety of built-in superior features such as scheduling, motion detection, multiple streams and more. ....more..

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IP security cameras



Digital / IP Security cameras

A digital network video surveillance system offers you a number of improvements over traditional Close Circuit Television (CCTV) video systems, like superior image quality and a large variety of built-in superior features such as scheduling, motion detection, multiple streams and more.

The major disadvantage and possibly deciding factor is cost. We will try and weigh the Advantages here over the traditional Analogue cameras.

Advantages

  • High resolution and pixel perfect image quality
  • Adjustable picture quality
  • No electrical noise problems (electric spike and electronic interference) 
  • Adjustable quality with multiple streams for PC or real-time mobile viewing (through the Internet)
  • Record footage to a PC, DVR or on to an onboard memory card
  • Rich features such as
    • scheduling
    • controlling the Infra-red night vision
    • motion detection
    • multiple streams for PC and mobile viewing and digital recording
  • Wireless IP cameras gives you the freedom to install the camera anywhere without complex wiring.


Disadvantages

  • More expensive than analogue cameras
  • A network is required for wired cameras (hub, routers or ADSL modem with various ports).
  • The optional Power over Ethernet feature reduces the number of cables to the camera, but requires a POE hub or POE injector.

Video compression

To save storage space, bandwidth and to speed video delivery up, especially over the internet, compression is used.

The most popular compression used is H.264 and H.265

H.265 is much more expensive to license than H.264, even through the quality is much better and bandwidth is lower. For cameras, it makes little sense to move from H.254 when the price to license H.265 it much higher.

Some resourceful manufacturers use a modified H.264 codec called H.264 plus.

H.264+ (H.264plus) requires special equipment to connect to the camera. It is not standard but is an option on some camera brands. It saves bandwidth by 50% or more, especially on still frames.

ONVIF

ONVIF cameras are compatible across all ONVIF security video products, such as recorders. Purchasing an ONVIF camera will provide peace of mind that it is compatible with any ONVIF recorder you may get now and in the future, irrespective of the brand.

ONVIF is an open industry forum that provides and promotes standardized interfaces for effective interoperability of IP-based physical security products.

ONVIF (Open Network Video Interface Forum) is a global and open industry forum with the goal of facilitating the development and use of a global open standard for the interface of physical IP-based security products. ONVIF creates a standard for how IP products within video surveillance and other physical security areas can communicate with each other. ONVIF is an organization started in 2008 by Axis Communications, Bosch Security Systems and Sony.

It was officially incorporated as a non-profit, 501(c)6 Delaware corporation on November 25, 2008. ONVIF membership is open to manufacturers, software developers, consultants, system integrators, end users and other interest groups that wish to participate in the activities of ONVIF. The ONVIF specification aims to achieve interoperability between network video products regardless of manufacturer.

The cornerstones of ONVIF are:
  •     Standardization of communication between network video devices
  •     Interoperability between network video products regardless of manufacturer
  •     Open to all companies and organizations

ONVIF specifications
  •     Interoperability – products from various manufacturers can be used in the same systems and "speak the same language"
  •     Flexibility – end-users and integrators are not locked within proprietary solutions based on technology choices of individual manufacturers.
  •     Future-proof – standards ensure that there are interoperable products on the market, no matter what happens to individual companies.
  •     Quality – when a product conforms to a standard, the market knows what to expect from that product.

The ONVIF Core Specification aims to standardize the network interface (on the network layer) of network video products. It defines a network video communication framework based on relevant IETF and Web Services standards including security and IP configuration requirements.

The following areas are covered by the Core Specification version 1.0:

  •     IP configuration
  •     Device discovery
  •     Device management
  •     Media configuration
  •     Real time viewing
  •     Event handling
  •     PTZ camera control
  •     Video analytics
  •     Security

Building on ONVIF specifications, ONVIF profiles are technical specifications that ensure the interoperability of specific features between conformant devices.

Profile S
    Addresses common functionalities of IP video systems, such as video and audio streaming, PTZ controls, and relay activation.

Profile C
    Addresses common functionalities of IP access control systems, such as door state and control, credential management, and event handling.

Profile G
    Addresses video storage, recording, search, and retrieval.

Profile Q
    Addresses device discovery and configuration, as well as the management of TLS certificates.

Profile A
    Functionality to retrieve information, status and events and to configure the Physical Access Control System (PACS) related entities such as access rules, credentials and schedules.

Profile T
    (Release Candidate) Support for video streaming features such as the use of H.264 and H.265 encoding formats, imaging settings, and alarm events such as motion and tampering detection.

Camera lenses

F-Stop

What you are asking is of F-Stop values , lower F-stop larger the aperture(the wide opening u see in front of cam) , also known as diaphram in optics. As aperture increases, that is F1.8 is having larger aperture than that of F2.2 or F2.0, more light it allows, which causes better photography in low light situations.


f/1.8 = Wide Aperture, More light reaches Image Sensor (Excellent night images), Shallow Depth of Field (Less of the picture is in focus)

f/2.0 = Smaller Aperture, Less light reaches Image Sensor, Deeper Depth of Field (More of the picture is in focus) than f/1.8

f/2.2 =  Smaller Aperture, Less light reaches Image Sensor (poorer night vision), Deeper Depth of Field than f/2.0 (More of the picture is in focus - very sharp image across entire image) 

Common problems with cameras and solutions

Spider webs and bugs in front of the camera

The IR usually attracts spiders and bugs to the camera. You can disable the IR and use an external IR.

You can use a "clean and kill" insecticide spray for the glass and an external environment insecticide on the case, but regular cleaning will be required.

Glass reflection

While mounting the camera indoors may seem like a good option, the window glass causes poor focus, and reflections. It is best to buy an outside camera and mount the camera outside.

Foggy / condensation

Fog and condensation can occur inside the camera.
Cameras may come with small packets of silica gel. Use these silica gel packets inside the camera to absorb moister. You can use silica gel packets from any other product inside the camera to keep the camera condensation-free.

Lightning damage

Lightning can damage the camera and recording equipment.

Ground your equipment and camera case very well, and use surge protectors and POE / Network surge protectors.






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